The International Organization for Standardization issued a standard for shock resistant watches, which many countries have adopted. ISO 1413 Horology—Shock-resistant watches specifies the minimum requirements and describes the corresponding method of test. It is intended to allow homologation tests rather than the individual control of all watches of a production of a production batch. It is based on the simulation of the shock received by a watch on falling accidentally from a height of 1 m on to a horizontal hardwood surface.
In practice shock resistance is generally tested by applying two shocks (one on the 9 o’clock side, and one to the crystal and perpendicular to the face). The shock is usually delivered by a hard plastic hammer mounted as a pendulum, so as to deliver a measured amount of energy, specifically, a 3 kg hammer with an impact velocity of 4.43 m/s. The watch must keep its accuracy to +/- 60 seconds/day as measured before the test.
Read more about shock resistance on Wikipedia.